What are the benefits of an architecture, like Intel x86S, that abandons modes legacy and is entirely 64-bit.

According to the contents of a technical document published these days, Intel would have plans for future simplification of the instruction set (ISA) at the base of its processors. The company headed by Pat Gelsinger may be calling x86S the new platform capable of running only codice a 64 bit.

In the 8, 16, 32, 64-bit race, many users switched to the 64-bit version of the Microsoft operating system as early as the Windows 7 era. To run 64-bit code means that processor registers are designed to hold and manipulate 64-bit data in a single operation. There log size 64-bit has a direct impact on addressing capabilities by allowing it to handle and use a much larger amount of memory than 32-bit registers. The benefits also concern precision e breadth of data processed: 64-bit registers can contain integers, pointers, or floating point data with higher precision. In terms of performanceFurthermore, using 64-bit registers can improve application performance: some complex arithmetic or logical operations can be performed more efficiently using 64-bit registers. However, it should be noted that this also depends on the specific processor implementation and code optimizations.

As we saw in the article on the differences between 32 and 64 bit, the transition to 64 bit coincided with the historical moment in which PC configurations mainstream they began to look at 4 GB of RAM memory or more (a 32-bit operating system can’t go beyond 4GB of RAM).

With the current operating system Windows 11it seems reasonable that Intel would consign architectural settings that date back to the original 8086 chip to history.

In the technical note entitled Imagining a simplified Intel architecture, the engineers of the Santa Clara company explain that in order to switch to 64 bit mode a series of code-level transitions are required which, once applied, are then no longer used in modern applications and operating systems.

Intel looks at x86S, 64-bit only architecture.  Here's how it works

The architecture proposed by Intel in its white paper completes the transition to a 64-bit architecture by removing some legacy modes.

Intel explains that the segmentation model refers to memory management by the processor: working only at 64 bit, the procedure is much more streamlined than it is today. Furthermore, with the removal of ring 1 and ring 2, no longer used by current software, there are tangible benefits in terms of simplification of the protection model, efficiency and reduction of vulnerabilities.

Il ring model of the processor it was designed to provide different levels of privileges and security: as operating systems and virtualization technologies evolved, the use of ring 1 and ring 2 became obsolete. Removing these layers reduces the complexity of the security model, making it easier to deploy and manage the operating system.

Ring 1 and ring 2 required additional steps and computational costs to switch from one ring to another: their elimination simplifies the transition operations between privilege levels, improving the general efficiency of the system. This can lead to better utilization of hardware resources and higher performance. With the removal of ring 1 and ring 2, the number of access points and potentials is reduced vulnerability.

Among the advantages, Intel engineers also count the removal of support for it address space 16-bit, access to I/O communication ports via ring 3 (the lowest level of protection in the processor’s ring protection model), technologies and techniques now considered legacy.

Intel reminds that with the final transition to 64-bit, it will still be possible to take advantage of advanced solutions based on virtualization to create virtual machines capable of reproducing configurations legacy useful for loading and running older operating systems and applications.


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